Thursday, April 14, 2022

Botanical Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurial Botany is the study of how new businesses are created using plant resources and the actual process of starting a new business.  Vast opportunities are there for the students of Botany.  In the present scenario, students should acquire the ability to merge skills and knowledge in a meaningful way.  They are converting botanical expertise into a business idea that can be put into practice for earning a livelihood is the much-needed training for the students.  The book gives an idea about the different Botanical businesses, which can realize the importance of this subject.  The book thoroughly talks about Mushroom Cultivation, Spirulina Farming, Azolla Cultivation, Cactus Garden, Botanical Excursion, Plant Nursery, Tissue Culture, Herbal technology, organic farming.  Students can do their own business by implementing their ideas.  There is no need for special infrastructure; entrepreneurs can start businesses from their houses.

On the other hand, all enterprises are run in favor of environmental sustainability.  The botanical businesses help to solve unemployability and are also beneficial for the development of society.  In botanical Entrepreneurship, each business works for societal well-being through a nutraceuticals diet, healthy food, nutritive Fodder, medicine, etc.  Today, there is a need to create awareness about Botanical businesses and make a short certificate course, workshops, webinars, and conferences to develop youth interest and entrepreneurship.  This book is a small step toward inculcating Botanical Entrepreneurship by awakening today's enthusiastic entrepreneurs.

You can buy the e-book and paperback below links.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Importance of Literature Review in Research Methodology

What is Literature Review?

    A literature review is a systematic overview of previous subject studies.  The literature review surveys journals, books, and other sources related to a specific study field.  This previous research should be listed,  defined, summarized, critically assessed, and explained.   


A literature review is a survey of academic sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) relevant to a particular subject or research issue. It is sometimes written as part of a thesis, dissertation, or research paper to position the work concerning established knowledge.

Objectives behind to write the literature review

A literature review at the beginning of a research project has many reasons:

  •    To familiarize yourself with the latest state of awareness
  •   To ensure you don't just replicate what others have done
  •   Identify information gaps and unsolved issues your study should fix
  •   Developing the theoretical structure and approach
  •   Overview of main findings and debates on the subject 
  •   Writing the literature review reveals how the work applies to current studies and what new findings it can lead to. 
  •  Identify the need for additional research (justifying the research) Identify the relationship between works as they relate to the subject and other works. Place your own studies within established literature to argue that more study is required.

Where is the position of Literature Review in Thesis/Research Paper/Proposal?

The literature review a portion of the article/proposal is a description or overview of all the research that the author has read before conducting his / her own research. This section can be part of the introduction or in the Background section.

The literature review typically comes close to the beginning of your thesis or dissertation.  After the introduction, the study is based on a scholarly area and leads directly to your theoretical structure or methodology.

How do I decide my Literature review size?

In the absence of any specific guidelines on the length of the literature review, the general rule of thumb is that it should be proportionate to the length of your entire article.  If your paper is 15 pages long, 2-3 pages might be appropriate for a literature review.

What are the attributes of a good literature review? 

A successful literature review is NOT merely a list detailing or summarizing a number of articles; a literature review is a discursive prose that leads to a conclusion by justification or argument. A good analysis of the literature shows signs of synthesis and comprehension of the subject.

 In addition to summarizing the details, a good literature review will also point out shortcomings in experimental procedures as well as potential theoretical conflicts. It builds on existing knowledge by finding gaps in the literature available and recommending potential research directions.

In a literature review, how old should literature be?

For study in the arts, humanities, literature, history, etc., a strong rule of thumb is to use sources published in the past 10 years.

What will be the first step in Literature Review Writing?

Gather literature that discusses the issue of your study. Study and take notes on literature: explain, summarize, evaluate, and define key concepts. Synthesize literature: compare & contrast, judge, view objectively, so you can draw conclusions.


The literature review must be undertaken by the researcher in a very careful and intentional manner before beginning the primary study, thought to be the first significant brick for building a solid foundation for successful research later.  Normally, in writing the literature review for their subjects, inexperienced researchers have very little experience, sometimes feel lost, and do not know where the starting point for performing the review is.  Some helpful tips mentioned above will provide some recommendations for beginners to consider and make a persuasive literature review.  In addition, the two examples presented are also realistic works in which more beneficial experiences from previous researchers can be sought by the novice.  In our opinion, this study is not a thorough material for writing an outstanding review, but we agree that it may provide some clues to newcomer researchers to consider and perform a fair literature review that will later be a solid basis for developing primary research.




Thursday, May 20, 2021


Table of Contents


   What is the meaning of entrepreneur?. 1

   Characteristics of an Entrepreneur 1

   Steps to become an entrepreneur 3

   What is the meaning of Entrepreneurship?. 5

   What are the benefits of Entrepreneurship to society?. 6

   What skills are needed to be an entrepreneur?. 7

v What is the meaning of Entrepreneur?

       An entrepreneur is a person who develops a new company, carries most of the risks, and receives most of the rewards. The entrepreneur is widely seen as an innovator, a source of new ideas, products, services, and business/procedures.

      An entrepreneur makes money by starting their own business, especially when this involves seeing a new opportunity and taking risks.

       Entrepreneurs play a vital role in any economy, using the expertise and the effort needed to anticipate needs and bring new ideas to the market. Entrepreneurs who prove successful in taking risks from start-ups are rewarded with profits, popularity, and continued growth opportunities—those who struggle to endure losses become less prevalent on the markets.

      Another definition of an entrepreneur who organizes manages, and assumes the risks of a business or enterprise. 


v Characteristics of an Entrepreneur

People might have thought that an 'Entrepreneur' is a person who is thinking differently; his thinking is different from a regular person. Ordinary people learn to seek a good job.  After that, a sweet home. A car, bank balance, a piece of land that is it.  Nevertheless, an Entrepreneur is a person who thinks apart from that, and he is a job giver rather than a job seeker.  An Entrepreneur thinks upon his idea to introduce them into the concrete business plan, which becomes anything like an e-book, audiobook, an app, online courses, an educational, technical youtube channel, any manufacturing company, an instrument, learning app, food product, agriculture products, entertainment products, etc.  There are many more things that ignite the entrepreneur's mind to start a business. 

                  There Whether the business plan becomes come true, or after that, the idea may succeed or not.  To become an entrepreneur, one should have to think out of the box. Entrepreneurs' minds should be full of various ideas.  If one should not have an idea, he will not become an entrepreneur because people’s minds should be full of ideas and dreams to make an entrepreneur.

 To become a successful entrepreneur, you should have 4 'P' & 2 'S' in your life.  They are patience, perseverance, persistence, persistency, sedulousness, and stick-to-it-iveness. 

         The entrepreneur has been used in English to refer to a form of businessman since at least the middle of the 18th century when it appeared in the translation of the instructions of the King of Prussia to his generals ('. . if the country does not abound in forage, you must agree with some Entrepreneur on the quantity required.'). During the 19th century, a go-between or an individual involved in some action was often used (as opposed to just a business).

     Economists have never had a consistent definition of "entrepreneur" or "entrepreneurship" (the word "entrepreneur" comes from the French verb entrepreneur, meaning "to undertake").

      In the case of an economist, an entrepreneur serves as a coordinating agent in the capitalist economy. This cooperation takes the form of a transfer of resources into new potential opportunities for profit. The entrepreneur transfers a range of tools, both tangible and intangible, to promote capital development.

The entrepreneur can help clear up the uncertainty when he makes decisions or assumes the risk in a full of confusion. To the degree that capitalism is a dynamic profit-and-loss method, entrepreneurs drive product discovery and continually discover information. Developed companies face intensified competition and threats from entrepreneurs, inspiring them to undertake research and development activities. From a technical, economic point of view, the entrepreneur disrupts the trajectory towards a steady-state balance.

Nurturing entrepreneurship can have a positive impact on the economy and culture in a variety of ways. First of all, entrepreneurs are building new companies. They invent goods and services, which lead to jobs, and often create a ripple effect, which leads to more and more growth.  Entrepreneurs are generating social change. They break tradition with unique innovations that minimize reliance on existing methods and structures, often making them redundant. Smartphones and their applications, for example, have revolutionized work and play around the globe.

Research shows that high levels of self-employment can slow economic development: entrepreneurship, if not adequately controlled, can lead to unfair market practices and corruption, and too many entrepreneurs can build income inequality in society. Overall, however, entrepreneurship is a crucial driver of creativity and economic development. Encouraging entrepreneurship is also an essential part of the economic development agenda of many local and national governments around the world.


To this end, governments are generally interested in the creation of entrepreneurial ecosystems, which can include entrepreneurs themselves, government-sponsored assistance programs, and venture capitalists. They can also include non-governmental organizations such as corporate associations, business incubators, and education programs.



v Steps to Become an Entrepreneur

1.     Search Out the best business for you to do

Entrepreneurship is a broad concept, and you can be an entrepreneur in just about every field.  However, you are going to have to choose a sector to work in and start a company.  Find a company that will not just be profitable, but that is something you are passionate about.  Entrepreneurship is a challenging task, so you want to concentrate your energy on something you care about.

2.     Need of education

There is no need for formal education to become an entrepreneur.  However, it is necessary to be educated in which field you are starting your company, for example, software development, coding, marketing strategies, etc.

3.     Make a business plan.

To become a successful entrepreneur, you must have a proper business plan in your mind.  Without the proper plan, the business will not achieve its goal.






4.     Make something better (or less expensive) than what is out there

You do not always have to build brand new stuff. You would have many buyers if you can sell an existing product at a lower price, a better quality, or preferably both. Better still, a current market exists.


If you ask the question, can anyone be an entrepreneur?  Then the answer is that Anyone can be an entrepreneur, but not everyone will have the same degree of success. Entrepreneurship has a lot of experience, ambition, and, often, education. However, there are no preconditions for being an entrepreneur and successful entrepreneurs from any demographic perspective.

5.     Your idea should be Innovative.

The generation of fresh innovations, start-up of a business, and benefit from it should be highly creative. Change may be the introduction, more effectively and economically, of a new product or a process that does the same thing.

6.     Ability to take a risk

The launch of every new enterprise implies a significant risk of failure. Therefore an entrepreneur must be bold and willing, an integral aspect of becoming an entrepreneur, to assess and take risks.















v What is the meaning of Entrepreneurship?

Entrepreneurship is the willingness and preparation to create, organize and operate a company and its uncertainties to profit. The launch of new companies is the most famous example of entrepreneurship.

            In economics, entrepreneurship linked to land, labor, natural resources, and capital can generate income. Discovery and risk-taking determine the entrepreneurial vision and are an integral part of the nation's ability to compete in a rapidly evolving global marketplace.  Entrepreneurship relates to creating and operating an organization to benefit from taking different chances in the business sector. In other terms, entrepreneurship can launch a new enterprise.

            The entrepreneur is described as someone who has the skill and will, and the right to profit from creating, managing, and succeeding in a start-up undertaking. The best example of entrepreneurship is the launch of a new business venture. Entrepreneurs are also regarded as a source of new ideas or innovators, and they bring new ideas to the market by replacing old with new inventions.  It can be listed as a small or domestic company by multinational corporations. In economics, the profits generated by an entrepreneur are combined with land, natural resources, labor, and capital.  In short, anybody who has the will and desire to start a new business and deal with all the risks that go with it can become an entrepreneur.


There are three types of entrepreneurship;

1.      Small Business Enterprise-

They are Incense sticks (agarbatti), Handmade chocolates, Cotton buds, Papad, Disposable plates and cups, Jute bags, Organic soap, Paper bags, Breakfast Joint, Daycare Services, etc.   These individuals run or operate their own company and employ families or local employees.  For them, profit could feed their families and not become one hundred million companies or take over an industry.  They finance their company by taking credit or loans from friends and relatives.

2.      Scalable Start-up for Entrepreneurship -

This start-up contractor starts a company that knows that its vision will change the world. It attracts investors who think and inspire people who think. The study focuses on a scalable market and experimental model to recruit the best and best people. It would help if you had more risk capital to fuel and sustain your project or company.

3.    Large Entrepreneurship Business-

These enormous organizations have characterized the life-cycle. The majority of these organizations develop and continue by offering new and imaginative items that spin around their essential items. The adjustment in innovation, client inclinations, new rivalry, and so forth construct pressure for numerous organizations to make a creative item and offer it to the new arrangement of clients in the new market. The current associations either purchase advancement undertakings or endeavor to develop the item inside to adapt to the fast mechanical changes.

Some of the example of large scale industries- Fertilizers, cement, natural gas, steel, metal extraction, metal refining, energy, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing machines, tourism, finance, sugar, building, automobile, communication devices, electronics, chemicals, earthmovers, consumer durables (such as tv, refrigerators, etc.).


v What are the benefits of Entrepreneurship to society?


Ø  Work development - Creativity produces opportunities. It offers an entry-level job for professional employees to obtain expertise and training.

Ø  Innovation- This is the center for innovation that creates new enterprises for products, customers, technologies, goods efficiency, etc., and raises people's living standards.

Ø  Effect on Culture and Economic Growth - Once the work base is broad and diversified, society becomes more vigorous. It encourages structural reforms and services such as higher tuition costs, increased sanitation, fewer slums, and a higher homeownership rate. Entrepreneurship also allows the company to achieve a more prosperous and high level of community existence.

Ø  Increasing living standards – Entrepreneurship helps increase a person's quality of life by increasing his salary. For a particular time, the living conditions raise the purchase of different products and services by a family.

Ø  Research and development assistance - Before opening the market, innovative technologies and services can be examined and evaluated. An entrepreneur also frequently offers research and development support for research organizations and colleges. This encourages science, building, and economic growth.


v What skills are needed to be an entrepreneur?

1.      Curiosity

2.      Time management

3.      Strategic thinking

4.      Efficiency

5.      Resilience

6.      Communication

7.      Networking

8.      Finance

9.      Branding

10.  Sales






Thursday, October 29, 2020

Phallus indusiatus morphology, cultivation, edibility and medicinal importance

In the family Phallaceae or stinkhorns, Phallus indusiatus, commonly called bamboo mushrooms, bamboo pith, long net stinkhorn, crinoline stinkhorn, or veiled lady, is a fungus. It has a cosmopolitan range in tropical regions. It is found in South Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Australia, where it grows in rich soil and well-rotted woody content in woodlands and gardens.  The fungus's fruit body is distinguished by a stalk-shaped conical to bell-shaped cap and a delicate "skirt" lacy, or indusium, hanging from under the cap and almost touching the ground.  First scientifically described by the French botanist Étienne Pierre Ventenat in 1798, the species was sometimes referred to as a separate genus Dictyophora along with other indusium-like Phallus species.  

Phallus indusiatus

Mature fruit bodies with a conical to bell-shaped cap that is 1.5–4 cm (0.6–1.6 in) wide are up to 25 cm (10 in) long.  A greenish-brown spore-containing slime covers the cap, attracting flies and other insects that consume and spread the spores. In stir-frys and chicken soups, an edible mushroom featured as an ingredient in Chinese haute cuisine is used.  The mushroom is rich in protein, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber and is cultivated commercially and widely sold in Asian markets.  There are also different bioactive compounds in the mushroom, and it has antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.  In Chinese medicine, Phallus indusiatus has a known history of use dating back to the 7th century AD and Nigerian folklore features.

Phallus indusiatus

Phallus indusiatus fruiting body structure-  Immature P. indusiatus fruit bodies are initially enclosed in an egg-shaped subterranean structure in a peridium.  The "egg" varies in color from whitish to buff to reddish-brown, measures up to 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter, and typically has a thick mycelial cord attached to the bottom.  As the mushroom matures, the strain caused by the enlargement of the internal structures causes the peridium to tear, and the fruit body quickly emerges from the "egg."  The mature mushroom is up to 25 cm tall and girded with a net-like structure called the indusium (or less formally a "skirt") hanging from the conical to a bell-like cap.  The net openings of the indusium can be polygonal or round. Well-developed specimens have an indusium that reaches the volva and flares out slightly before collapsing on the stalk.  The cap is 1.5–4 cm (0.6–1.6 in) broad, and it's reticulated (pitted and ridged). The surface is filled with a coating of greenish-brown and foul-smelling slime, the gleba, which is initially partially obscure.  The top of the cap has a small hole. The stalk is 7–25 cm long and 1,5–3 cm (0,6–1,2 in) thick.  The hollow stalk is white, often curved, and spongy in width across its length.  The ruptured peridium remains at the base of the stalk as a loose vulva.  Fruit bodies grow throughout the night and need 10–15 hours to develop entirely after emerging from the peridium.  They are short-lived, generally lasting no more than a few days. At that point, the slime was usually removed by insects, leaving the pale off-white, bare-cap surface exposed.


Phallus indusiatus egg

Like all Phallus species, P. indusiatus is saprobic — deriving from breaking down wood and organic plant matter.  Fruit bodies grow alone or in groups in disturbed soil and among wood chips.  In Asia, it grows among bamboo trees and usually fruits after heavy rains.   Like P. indusiatus, stinkhorn breeding methods vary from other agaric mushrooms, which violently eject their spores. Instead, Stinkhorns produce a sticky spore mass with a sharp, sickly-sweet odor of carrion. The cloying stink of mature fruit bodies — detectable from a considerable distance — is attractive to some insects.  The species reported visiting the fungus include stingless Trigona bees and Drosophilidae and Muscidae fly. Insects aid spore dispersal by eating the gleba and depositing excrement containing intact spores to germinate elsewhere. Although the indusium's role is not understood, it may visually attract insects not otherwise attracted by the odor and serve as a ladder for crawling insects reaching the gleba.

Phallus indusiatus eggs

Phallus indusiatus has been cultivated on a commercial scale in China since 1979.  In the Fujian Province of China — known for its booming mushroom industry, cultivates 45  edible fungi species — P. Indusiatus is grown in Fuan, Jianou, and Ningde.  Developments in cultivation have made the fungus cheaper and more widely available; in 1998, around 1,100 metric tonnes (1,100 long tonnes; 1,200 short tonnes) were grown in China.  Hong Kong's price for one kilogram of dried mushrooms was about US$ 770 in 1982, but it had fallen to US$ 100–200 by 1988.  Further developments led to a further decline to US$ 10–20 by 2000.  The fungus is grown on agricultural waste — bamboo-trash sawdust covered by a thin layer of non-sterilized soil.  The optimum temperature for mushroom spawn and fruit bodies' growth is about 24 ° C (75 ° F), with a relative humidity of 90–95%.  Other substrates that can cultivate fungi include bamboo leaves and small stems, soya pods or stems, corn stems, and willow leaves.


A nutritional analysis of P. indusiatus (based in Nigeria) showed that the fungus egg stage contains 33.6 g of crude protein, 1.66 g of fat, and 3.98 g of carbohydrate (per 100 g of fungus, dry weight).  The egg stage also consisted of 20.9 g of dietary fiber and 88.76 percent of the moisture content.  The high protein and fiber levels (comparable to those found in meat and vegetables, respectively) indicate that the P. indusiatus egg is a healthy food source. The concentration of many mineral elements, including potassium, sodium, and iron, was also favorable compared to fruit and vegetables. However, the fungus' mineral composition depends on the corresponding concentration in the soil in which it grows.


Chemical Compounds-  Phallus indusiatus was ascribed to medicinal properties from the Chinese Tang Dynasty when mentioned in the pharmacopeia.  The fungus has been used to treat many inflammatory, stomach, and neural diseases. Traditionally, Miao people in Southern China continue to use it for a variety of conditions, including injuries and pains, coughing, dysentery, enteritis, leukemia, and fatigue, and clinically recommended care for laryngitis, leukorrhea, fever, and oliguria (low urine output), diarrhea, hypertension, cough, hyperlipidemia, and anticancer therapy.


Fruits of the fungus contain biologically active polysaccharides. β-D-glucan labeled T-5-N and prepared from alkaline extracts[61] has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Its chemical structure is a linear chain backbone made up mostly of D-mannopyranosyl-linked D-manopyrosyl residues, with traces of 1-manopyrosyl-linked D-manopyrosyl residues.  Polysaccharide has tumor-suppressing activity against subcutaneously implanted sarcoma 180 (transplantable, n).


Another chemical of interest found in P. indusiatus is hydroxymethylfurfural, which has gained attention as an inhibitor of tyrosinase.  Tyrosinase catalyzes the initial steps of melanogenesis in mammals. It is responsible for undesirable browning reactions in damaged fruits during post-harvest handling and processing, and its inhibitors are of interest to the medical, cosmetic, and food industries.  Hydroxymethylfurfural, which exists naturally in many foods, is not associated with significant health risks. P. indusiatus also contains special ribonuclease (an enzyme that cuts RNA into smaller components) with many biochemical features distinguishing it from other known ribonuclease mushrooms.


A 2001 publication in the International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms attempted to develop its effectiveness as an aphrodisiac. In the trial involving 16 women, six self-reported mild orgasm experiences smelled the fruit body, and the other 10, who received lower doses, self-reported increased heart rate.  Both twenty men examined found the smell to be displeasing. The study used fruit bodies found in Hawaii, not the edible variety grown in China. Criticism was received from the study.  A way to achieve instant orgasms would be expected to attract a lot of publicity, and many attempts to replicate the effect, but none succeeded. No major science journal has published the research, and there are no reviews in which the findings have been replicated. 


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Botanical Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurial Botany is the study of how new businesses are created using plant resources and the actual process of starting a new busines...