Showing posts with label TAXON. Show all posts
Showing posts with label TAXON. Show all posts

Friday, October 16, 2020

Information of different Websites for Authentication of the Name of Particular Plant Species

Many websites are used to confirm the plant's authentically identification, ensure its accepted binomial name, its synonym, and other necessary information you can get from these websites.

Generally, most of the students might not know about these websites. Therefore this article will be beneficial for them.

1.  The Plant
The Plant List is a working rundown of all known plant species. Version 1.1, delivered in September 2013, expects to be exhaustive for types of Vascular plants (flowering plants, conifers, ferns, and their allies) and of Bryophytes (musci and liverworts). It does exclude algae & fungi. Version 1.1 contains 1,293,685 botanical plant names, of which 350,699 are accepted species names.  It incorporates no vernacular or common plant names. 

The joint effort between the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and Missouri Botanical Garden empowered The Plant List's formation by consolidating numerous agenda datasets held by these establishments and different associates. 

The Plant List gives the Accepted Latin name to most species, with connections to all Synonyms by which that species has been known. It additionally incorporates Unresolved names for which the contributing information sources didn't contain adequate proof to choose whether they were Accepted or Synonyms, or where there were clashing suppositions that couldn't be promptly settled.

2.  World Flora Online-
The World Flora Online (WFO) was launched in October 2012 as a follow-up project to The Plant List to publish all recognized plants' online flora by 2020.  It is a project of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity to halt plant species loss worldwide by 2020.  It is established by a collaborative group of institutions worldwide in response to the updated Goal 1 of the Global Plant Conservation Strategy (GSPC) 2011–2020: to create "an online flora of all recognized plants."

An accessible flora of all known plant species was considered essential for plant conservation. It provides a baseline for achieving and tracking other plan objectives. GSPC's previous goal was reached in 2010 with The Plant List.  The WFO was conceived by an initial group of four institutions in 2012; the Missouri Botanical Garden, the New York Botanical Garden, the Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh, and the Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew 36 institutions are involved in the development.

3.  Royal Botanic Garden-Kew taxonomy 

                Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom funded by the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. An internationally relevant botanical research and education institution, it employs 1,100 staff.  The Board of Trustees is headed by Dame Amelia Fawcett.

                 The organization manages the botanical gardens at Kew in Richmond on Thames in southwest London, and at Wakehurst, the National Trust in Sussex, home to the internationally important Millennium Seed Bank, whose scientists work with partner organizations in more than 95 countries.  Kew, together with the Forestry Commission, founded Bedgebury National Pinetum in Kent in 1923.

                     In 2018, the organization had 1,858,513 public visitors to Kew and 354,957 to Wakehurst.  The 326-acre (132 ha) site at Kew has 40 historic buildings; it became a UNESCO World Heritage Site on 3 July 2003.  The collections at Kew and Wakehurst include over 27,000 taxa of living plants, 8.3 million plant and fungal herbarium specimens, and over 40,000 species in the seed bank.

     It contains - 

  Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG)  Historically known as the Taxonomic Databases Working Group, today's Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) is a non-profit, scientific and educational association formed to establish international collaboration between creators, managers, and users of biodiversity information and to promote broader and more effective dissemination and sharing of knowledge on the world heritage.
  • To achieve its objectives, the TDWG:
  • Develops, ratifies, and promotes standards and guidelines for the recording and exchange of data on organisms;
  • acts as a forum for discussing all aspects of biodiversity information management through meetings, online discussions, and publications.

Index Fungorum     
  • Index Fungorum is an international project to index all formal names (scientific names) in the fungus kingdom. As of 2015, the project is based at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, one of three partners along with Landcare Research and the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
  • It is somewhat comparable to the International Plant Name Index (IPNI), including the Royal Botanic Gardens. The difference is that if the IPNI does not indicate the correct name, the Index Fungorum indicates the name's status. The currently correct name in the search page returns is shown in green, while the others are shown in blue (a few aberrant names are indicated in red). All names are linked to pages with the correct name and synonym lists.

  • Index Fungorum is one of the three nomenclature repositories recognized by the Fungi Nomenclature Committee; the others are MycoBank and Fungal Names.

                        International Plant Names Index (IPNI) Welcome to the International Plant Name Index (IPNI) produced in collaboration with The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Harvard University Herbaria, and The Australian National Herbarium, hosted by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. IPNI provides nomenclature information (spelling, authoring, types, and first place and date of publication) for Vascular Plants' scientific names from family to infra-specific ranks. In the search box above, you can search for plant names, authors, or publications. For advanced search options, click the down arrow. New records are added daily, and the IPNI team is continuously working to improve data standardization.
  • IPNI provides links to protologists in online articles or page scans of the Biodiversity Heritage Library and links to taxonomic data (synonyms and native distribution) through Plants of the World Online.

One of the Interesting Feature of the Kew Website is 
  • Taxonomic Name Resolution Service- A tool for the computer-assisted standardization of plant-specific names. TNRS- Corrects spellings errors and alternative spellings to a standard list of names and converts out of date names (Synonyms) to the currently accepted name. 
4.  Angiosperm Phylogeny Group System (APG)

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, or APG, is an informal international group of systematic botanists working together to build a consensus taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that reflects new knowledge of plant relations discovered through phylogenetic studies.

     It is from, 
  • 1998-APG I
  • 2003-APG II
  • 2006-APG III
  • 2016-APG IV
About Cladistics family arrangement about classification system.

5.  International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT)

The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) promotes knowledge of plant biodiversity, encourages an international exchange of study between botanists, and oversees continuity and stability in plant names. The IAPT was established on 18 July 1950 at the Seventh International Botanical Congress in Stockholm, Sweden. The IAPT is currently based in Bratislava, Slovakia. The current president since 2017 is Patrick S. Herendeen (Chicago Botanic Garden); the vice president is Gonzalo Nieto Feliner (Real Jardín Botánico, Madrid); and the general secretary is Karol Marhold (Plant Science and Biodiversity Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava).

Both the Taxonomic Journal and the Regnum Vegetabile series are published by the IAPT. This latter series contains the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants, Index Nominum Genericorum, and Index Herbariorum.


TAXON is the leading international journal dedicated to the systematics, phylogeny, and taxonomy of algae, fungi, and plants. It also publishes papers on methodology, botanical history, biography, bibliography and related topics, opinion articles, comments, and new perspectives, and publishes various daily columns, including Plant Systematics World. TAXON is the only place to publish proposals to change the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (except Chapter F-Fungi) Nomenclature proposals.


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