Thursday, October 29, 2020

Phallus indusiatus morphology, cultivation, edibility and medicinal importance

In the family Phallaceae or stinkhorns, Phallus indusiatus, commonly called bamboo mushrooms, bamboo pith, long net stinkhorn, crinoline stinkhorn, or veiled lady, is a fungus. It has a cosmopolitan range in tropical regions. It is found in South Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Australia, where it grows in rich soil and well-rotted woody content in woodlands and gardens.  The fungus's fruit body is distinguished by a stalk-shaped conical to bell-shaped cap and a delicate "skirt" lacy, or indusium, hanging from under the cap and almost touching the ground.  First scientifically described by the French botanist Étienne Pierre Ventenat in 1798, the species was sometimes referred to as a separate genus Dictyophora along with other indusium-like Phallus species.  

Phallus indusiatus

Mature fruit bodies with a conical to bell-shaped cap that is 1.5–4 cm (0.6–1.6 in) wide are up to 25 cm (10 in) long.  A greenish-brown spore-containing slime covers the cap, attracting flies and other insects that consume and spread the spores. In stir-frys and chicken soups, an edible mushroom featured as an ingredient in Chinese haute cuisine is used.  The mushroom is rich in protein, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber and is cultivated commercially and widely sold in Asian markets.  There are also different bioactive compounds in the mushroom, and it has antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.  In Chinese medicine, Phallus indusiatus has a known history of use dating back to the 7th century AD and Nigerian folklore features.

Phallus indusiatus

Phallus indusiatus fruiting body structure-  Immature P. indusiatus fruit bodies are initially enclosed in an egg-shaped subterranean structure in a peridium.  The "egg" varies in color from whitish to buff to reddish-brown, measures up to 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter, and typically has a thick mycelial cord attached to the bottom.  As the mushroom matures, the strain caused by the enlargement of the internal structures causes the peridium to tear, and the fruit body quickly emerges from the "egg."  The mature mushroom is up to 25 cm tall and girded with a net-like structure called the indusium (or less formally a "skirt") hanging from the conical to a bell-like cap.  The net openings of the indusium can be polygonal or round. Well-developed specimens have an indusium that reaches the volva and flares out slightly before collapsing on the stalk.  The cap is 1.5–4 cm (0.6–1.6 in) broad, and it's reticulated (pitted and ridged). The surface is filled with a coating of greenish-brown and foul-smelling slime, the gleba, which is initially partially obscure.  The top of the cap has a small hole. The stalk is 7–25 cm long and 1,5–3 cm (0,6–1,2 in) thick.  The hollow stalk is white, often curved, and spongy in width across its length.  The ruptured peridium remains at the base of the stalk as a loose vulva.  Fruit bodies grow throughout the night and need 10–15 hours to develop entirely after emerging from the peridium.  They are short-lived, generally lasting no more than a few days. At that point, the slime was usually removed by insects, leaving the pale off-white, bare-cap surface exposed.


Phallus indusiatus egg

Like all Phallus species, P. indusiatus is saprobic — deriving from breaking down wood and organic plant matter.  Fruit bodies grow alone or in groups in disturbed soil and among wood chips.  In Asia, it grows among bamboo trees and usually fruits after heavy rains.   Like P. indusiatus, stinkhorn breeding methods vary from other agaric mushrooms, which violently eject their spores. Instead, Stinkhorns produce a sticky spore mass with a sharp, sickly-sweet odor of carrion. The cloying stink of mature fruit bodies — detectable from a considerable distance — is attractive to some insects.  The species reported visiting the fungus include stingless Trigona bees and Drosophilidae and Muscidae fly. Insects aid spore dispersal by eating the gleba and depositing excrement containing intact spores to germinate elsewhere. Although the indusium's role is not understood, it may visually attract insects not otherwise attracted by the odor and serve as a ladder for crawling insects reaching the gleba.

Phallus indusiatus eggs

Phallus indusiatus has been cultivated on a commercial scale in China since 1979.  In the Fujian Province of China — known for its booming mushroom industry, cultivates 45  edible fungi species — P. Indusiatus is grown in Fuan, Jianou, and Ningde.  Developments in cultivation have made the fungus cheaper and more widely available; in 1998, around 1,100 metric tonnes (1,100 long tonnes; 1,200 short tonnes) were grown in China.  Hong Kong's price for one kilogram of dried mushrooms was about US$ 770 in 1982, but it had fallen to US$ 100–200 by 1988.  Further developments led to a further decline to US$ 10–20 by 2000.  The fungus is grown on agricultural waste — bamboo-trash sawdust covered by a thin layer of non-sterilized soil.  The optimum temperature for mushroom spawn and fruit bodies' growth is about 24 ° C (75 ° F), with a relative humidity of 90–95%.  Other substrates that can cultivate fungi include bamboo leaves and small stems, soya pods or stems, corn stems, and willow leaves.


A nutritional analysis of P. indusiatus (based in Nigeria) showed that the fungus egg stage contains 33.6 g of crude protein, 1.66 g of fat, and 3.98 g of carbohydrate (per 100 g of fungus, dry weight).  The egg stage also consisted of 20.9 g of dietary fiber and 88.76 percent of the moisture content.  The high protein and fiber levels (comparable to those found in meat and vegetables, respectively) indicate that the P. indusiatus egg is a healthy food source. The concentration of many mineral elements, including potassium, sodium, and iron, was also favorable compared to fruit and vegetables. However, the fungus' mineral composition depends on the corresponding concentration in the soil in which it grows.


Chemical Compounds-  Phallus indusiatus was ascribed to medicinal properties from the Chinese Tang Dynasty when mentioned in the pharmacopeia.  The fungus has been used to treat many inflammatory, stomach, and neural diseases. Traditionally, Miao people in Southern China continue to use it for a variety of conditions, including injuries and pains, coughing, dysentery, enteritis, leukemia, and fatigue, and clinically recommended care for laryngitis, leukorrhea, fever, and oliguria (low urine output), diarrhea, hypertension, cough, hyperlipidemia, and anticancer therapy.


Fruits of the fungus contain biologically active polysaccharides. β-D-glucan labeled T-5-N and prepared from alkaline extracts[61] has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Its chemical structure is a linear chain backbone made up mostly of D-mannopyranosyl-linked D-manopyrosyl residues, with traces of 1-manopyrosyl-linked D-manopyrosyl residues.  Polysaccharide has tumor-suppressing activity against subcutaneously implanted sarcoma 180 (transplantable, n).


Another chemical of interest found in P. indusiatus is hydroxymethylfurfural, which has gained attention as an inhibitor of tyrosinase.  Tyrosinase catalyzes the initial steps of melanogenesis in mammals. It is responsible for undesirable browning reactions in damaged fruits during post-harvest handling and processing, and its inhibitors are of interest to the medical, cosmetic, and food industries.  Hydroxymethylfurfural, which exists naturally in many foods, is not associated with significant health risks. P. indusiatus also contains special ribonuclease (an enzyme that cuts RNA into smaller components) with many biochemical features distinguishing it from other known ribonuclease mushrooms.


A 2001 publication in the International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms attempted to develop its effectiveness as an aphrodisiac. In the trial involving 16 women, six self-reported mild orgasm experiences smelled the fruit body, and the other 10, who received lower doses, self-reported increased heart rate.  Both twenty men examined found the smell to be displeasing. The study used fruit bodies found in Hawaii, not the edible variety grown in China. Criticism was received from the study.  A way to achieve instant orgasms would be expected to attract a lot of publicity, and many attempts to replicate the effect, but none succeeded. No major science journal has published the research, and there are no reviews in which the findings have been replicated. 

Saturday, October 24, 2020

Requirements to Start the Certificate Course of Spirulina Farming, Production & Marketing


Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a winding molded microalga that normally fills in the wild in warm and new water lakes. It is a blue-green growth. Dried spirulina contains roughly 60-70 % protein, Nutrient A, B, and K. There are various advantages of spirulina. It has ground-breaking against oxidant, hostile to disease, and calming properties. It is additionally viable against pallor and controlling glucose. Inferable from every one of these properties, spirulina is considered as the present superfood.

Benefits from taking Spirulina every day

1.    It aids in recuperating wounds and brings down LDL cholesterol.


2.    It is utilized as a protein supplement for malnourished kids and grown-ups


3.    It is utilized in cows, poultry, and marine feed; in the medical services area; in medication; in restorative arrangements; and in sericulture and cultivation media.


4. Since Spirulina gives all the fundamental sustenance without an overabundance of calories and fats, those needing to control stoutness take Spirulina tablets.


5.     Spirulina is amazingly mainstream as a wellbeing food, with no results, and non-propensity framing.


6.     Contains the enemy of maturing properties.


7.    Contains simple to ingest iron enhancements ideal for ladies and youngsters.


8.     Improves stomach related wellbeing.


9.    It is additionally a brilliant mitigating, which is a fundamental advantage to joint pain patients.


10. High convergence of B Nutrients; which separate sugar and lipids as well as keep up cardiovascular wellbeing.


What’s requires to grow Spirulina?

1.     Spirulina pond- Cement ponds with 3-4 meters wide and can be as long as 100 meters.

2.     To cover the pond – A polythene cover or greenhouse.

3.     Specially made filters to recover the biomass

4.     Pulveriser to get the powder.

5.     Paddlewheels

6.     Motors

7.     Vibratory sieve

8.     Crossflow type tray dryer

9.      Packing machine

10.  Tablet press machine

11.  Capsule filling machine


Water necessities are the most significant advance to developing spirulina, and in spite of the fact that spirulina can fill in an assortment of sorts of high antacid waters the accompanying "fixings" are required;

Sodium bicarbonate (if direct CO2 is not available)

Magnesium sulfate

Potassium nitrate

Citric acid

Common salt


Calcium chloride

Iron sulfate

Ammonium sulfate    

Different offices required are;

Reaping bowls

Drying rooms or racks

A space to break down the Spirulina drops and change them into powder and additional containers.

Specialized Information sources

A lake 5 meters wide by 20 meters in length for 1 kg. Spirulina creation.


Sun-powered Board


Friday, October 23, 2020

A closer look and a thorough review of the current teaching-learning style for successful pedagogy

                                 The present instructing learning style is centered around the educator and intended for listening instead of learning.  A more intensive look and necessary investigation of the educating learning model uncovers that hypothesis classes are frequently address-based.  The research center/field works have been restricted to simply regularly executing the commonsense procedures.  Studies have consistently demonstrated that understudies have to change learning styles because not a solitary encouraging fashion satisfies all understudies requires.  There are four kinds of students; Visual Students, Aural Students, Verbal Students, and Material Students.  There are numerous speculations on powerful teaching method.  For example, they are showing dependent on e-learning.  No instructor can always fulfill all understudies, mostly due to the variety of learning styles in any class and incompletely.  Every individual uses a specific blend of the learning styles referenced previously.  Understudies may not know well if the instructor utilizes just his/her style.  To show everybody most viably, an instructor can't reliably overlook an entire class area, nearly because their learning styles don't compare to the educators favored instructing propensities.  Preparing is a light that shows humankind the right bearing to flood.  The inspiration driving guidance isn't just making an understudy taught anyway incorporates thinking, knowledgeability, and freedom.  The teaching-learning method should have to change according to the change in time; rejuvenation is necessary as per the demand of that period's generation.  Teaching –Learning is the integrity of both teacher and student efforts to fulfill effective pedagogy and successful study.  There is no bad thing in the traditional teaching method, but some implementation should be implemented to effectively teach.


                          Today's teaching-learning style is focused on the teacher and is designed for listening rather than engaging in learning.  The preference is given to the completion of the syllabus- not on the teaching of the individual.  A more intensive look and necessary investigation of the educating learning model uncovers that hypothesis classes are regularly address-based. The lab/field works have been restricted to simply regularly actualizing the viable procedures1. This shows that it is essential to change it. A fruitful instructional method must begin with attention to these challenges and some basic techniques for defeating them. Presently, contemplates have indicated that understudies have shifting learning styles because not a solitary training style satisfies all understudies requires. There is frequently observed that a few understudies don't focus on their different learning style, which doesn't help with the ordinary 'chalk and talk.' instructing type.  Hence students do not learn well.  To solve such problems, the teacher should have to get versatility, flexibility according to students' requirements.  For that purpose, the teacher firstly tries to understand the learning preferences of that particular student.


Types of Learners-

 Visual Students: - Want to examine the diagram, take a gander at models and pictures, and take notes to the survey later. Such understudies respond well to general board use.

Aural Students: - They listen cautiously in class, regularly read noisily. These understudies can undoubtedly cooperate with different understudies in class, just as in bunch conversation.

Verbal Learners: The nature of studying these kinds of students is opposite to that of visual learning.  They give more responses to lectures, written materials.

Tactile Learners: - These students learn best by handling the experiments themselves then after they apply their knowledge.  They get more joy in taking photos, magazines, journals, natural objects, etc.


v What kinds of efforts should have to take to improve teaching style according to the learning preferences?


No instructor can always fulfill all understudies, somewhat on account of the variety of learning styles in any class and halfway. Every individual uses a specific blend of the learning styles referenced previously. Understudies may not know well if an educator utilizes just his/her style. To show everybody most viably, an educator can't reliably overlook an entire area of the class basically because their learning styles don't compare to the instructors favored instructing propensities. However, to reach as many understudies as could reasonably be expected, the instructor must fuse shifting showing methods and techniques into the classroom. Preparing is a light that shows humanity the right going to flood. The purpose behind preparing isn't just making an understudy instructed at this point incorporates thinking, knowledgeability, and freedom.

v Teaching Techniques to Address All Learning Styles

 There are many theories on effective pedagogy: - 

1.      Teaching based on e-learning.

2. Use of multimedia, for example, computer, animation, PowerPoint presentation, movie, etc.

3. The atmosphere of the classroom should be nutritious for better understanding and fulfillment of the purpose of teaching-learning.

4. The respective teacher should be well educated, having in-depth knowledge about the particular subject.

5.  The teacher should be developed the gesture- posture because, for effective learning, it is also necessary to connect learners to the subject.

6.  References from various books, journals, newspapers, resources should be followed.

7.  Opinions of people having experience, command on that subject will be benefited.

8.  For effective teaching, use various teaching- aids such as pictures, graphs, simple sketches, models, e.g., DNA model, Plant cell model, Drop irrigation model, whereas colorful charts.

9.  In biological sciences, the excursion tour is mandatory to know the habit- habitat of that particular organism.

10.  Study preserved specimens in colleges and research institutes to understand the actual organism instead of seeing it only in books.

11. PowerPoint presentation, graphical representations such as histogram, frequency curve, frequency polygon despite bar diagram, pie chart, etc. play a significant role and make the teaching-learning process most comfortable.

12. Conversations, debates, interviews, seminars, group discussions are also important aspects to improve the quality of teaching.

Conclusion: - Teaching learning method should have to change according to the change in time; rejuvenation is necessary as per the demand of the generation of that period. Teaching –Learning is the integrity of both teacher and student efforts to fulfill effective pedagogy and successful study. The teacher only continuously talks for one hour in the traditional teaching method, and students only listen to it. This type of teaching is passive, in which students only hear but not understood.  There is no bad thing in the traditional teaching method, but some implementation should be implemented to effectively teach.



Tuesday, October 20, 2020

Forensic Botany: Used for Criminal Investigation


                       Various Botany branches work on forensic and evolution of the plant molecular biology in the forensic branch.  Forensic Botany means the use of botanical evidence in criminal investigation, either civil or criminal cases.  It is divided into many classes according to the botanical evidence viz.'Plant anatomy' (analysis of the cellular characteristics of the plant), 'Plant systematics' (Taxonomy), 'Palynology' (the study of pollen), 'Plant ecology' (plant succession patterns), 'Limnology' (the study of freshwater ecology, 'Plant anatomy' was an analysis of the use of pant sections, leaf morphology, tree anatomy, tree growth pattern.  The evolutionary relationship between the plant species and its taxonomy, which is the naming of plant species, was observed in 'Plant Systematic.'  Identification of species is the first step in the study of case-by-case botanical proof.  In the case of 'Forensic Palynology,' the use of pollen was seen in the criminal investigation.  In which the leading group of plants known as pollen sources, including flowering plants.  Pollen is not visually seen microscopic.  It was trace evidence during the crime because pollen morphology collection helps to classify the plant genus present in the surrounding vegetation.  In 'Plant Ecology' it includes researching vegetation growth patterns in areas that have been disrupted; the flowering part of the plant can help to predict the time of death that is when the body is discovered lying on top of the weed plant with broken top valuable knowledge is gained at a definite time when death occurs. In 'Limnology,' freshwater ecology research was performed in which aquatic plants were useful.  The forensic botanist has now used 'DNA technology.'  The first court case that used plant DNA typing to seek legal acceptance was a murder in the Maricopa country of Arizona in 1992.  In forensic botany, this DNA technology offers precious evidence to settle criminal cases.     


                 The plant evidence was useful for determining if a death was accidental, suicide, or homicide, or what time of year burial may be taken. These are all determined by using plant evidence.  These plant evidence may be primary or secondary.  Also, these plant body help for the search for the missing body.  Since the investigation, plant evidence may follow stapes viz.' Recognition', 'Documentation,' 'Collection,' 'Preservation.'  In the first stapes ‘Recognition’ where the crime has happened that placed find with using plant evidence observed from that location.  Then the second stapes ‘Documentation’ all these crime evidence included in a written form. This documentation is necessary to preserve the characters and manners in which evidence is located and collected from that region.  These proper senses of evidence involved multiple formats as a general note, photographs, videotaping, sketches, and diagrams documentation were essential for any evidence.  In the third stape, ‘Collection’ in which plant evidence is collected, proceeds for further investigation. The last stapes are ‘Preservation.' These collected plant samples for preserved up to completely solve these cases. 

    Pollen grains under the 10X 

Civil and criminal case investigation for studied how the use of spores and pollens as evidence.  The branch of forensic palynology has been successfully used as a crime-fighting tool.  Spores and pollens are small and almost universal in distribution, and necked eyes cannot see it, and hence, the criminal does not remove this evidence from the crime area.  Pollens resist decomposition because they have a multilayered cell wall composed of cellulose and an organic molecule known as sporopollenin.  Pollens' walls can be preserved for hundreds of million years. The collection sample of cones, flowers, fruits, galls, seeds, or leaves was collected with palynologists' help. These collected samples stored in newspapers are not stored in a plastic container because they will be infected with some fungi or bacteria they destroyed.


              There is various use of ‘Forensic ecology,' ‘Botany,' and ‘Palynology’ in a criminal investigation.  These studies are essential for solving the criminal cases because it helps determine times of deposition of bodies, the origin of the objects, and palynology. It helps to understand the study of pollen, pollen spores, and fungal spores.  Ecology helps the study of the ecosystem for the relation between investigated materials and the body.  The anatomy of plants helps identification of what food was eaten by the victim before death.  When new pollens and spores fall on the ground, there are already existing previous pollen grains on the ground surface.  In the forensic study, the timing of sampling is essential; these all studied under palynology.  They study up to the source of trace evidence is to be found.  They also study the surface samples, samples mixed with the footwear, and samples mixed with vehicles.


                     The importance of forensic projects was challenging to all students because in which analysis of plant evidence was studied.  It was a study using light and polarized light microscopy.  Students enjoy forensic related projects and increase with knowledge and skill.  In forensic projects, students studied the crystals, plastids, fibers, pigments, tissue, arranging the cell, and differentiated food plants from one another; students observed crime-related all matter or how to solve the criminal cases.   The botany related to all evidence was very important in the forensic case study.  There are various types of instruments used in the forensic lab using these instruments; they observed plant materials and a relationship between them and the dead body.  Students studied these forensic related projects are significant.           


             The evolved technology, i.e., ‘DNA analysis,' was applied to forensic cases.  They studied how the DNA analysis technique was used to solve forensic cases.  DNA was carried all genetic information; hence, the use of DNA tests in forensic cases gives a new thing to human identification.  Genetic material was unique for each individual; we can prove the legal proofs in court using these DNA tests. In an overview of DNA technology's evolution in forensic botany to study forensic cases, the term used as viz. “DNA fingerprinting," "Teeth and DNA analysis," "DNA isolation," "Forensic DNA typing” any organism identified by using the DNA sequences because it is unique to each species.  Every cell of an individual carries a copy of each DNA sequence.  In DNA technology, significantly less material is required to test because very much DNA can be extracted from the tooth, and DNA was preserved for a long time in tooth or bones.  Plants contain mtDNA and cDNA, which are one of the powerful tools in forensic biology.  Now a day’s very advanced technology of molecular biology can be used in forensic to solve criminal and civil cases.


 Microscopic plant evidence is used in forensic science.  "Forensic mycology" it is now the recently advanced tool used in the forensic study.  Forensic botanist observed botanical evidence and gave the legal report to the forensic lab.  ‘Plant Anatomy, ‘Plant Taxonomy,' 'Plant Ecology ‘are the three main branches that are very useful in the forensic case study.  Plant material was observed everywhere. They were present near or attached to the victim's body. It is beneficial to investigate plant or its various parts studied in particular branches.  This collected evidence identified these various branches.  These all observations using plant evidence are included in the forensic botany.

            Role of Forensic Botany in solving criminal cases.  The collection of data and its preservation was essential for this study.  Forensic botany can provide significant support to preserve the material.  The cloths of the victim, some of the plant material, are to be attached it is collected these were observed, and classification is by a forensic botanist. These species identification helped find the location or the victim's relation to that point and observed any microscopic damage on the plant organs. This study was included in the plant anatomy branch of Forensic Botany.


The morphology of pollens in criminal investigations.  Pollens' spore production and its dispersion are helped to determine the geographical location.  Recently for solving criminal cases, pollens are mainly studied.  The branch of Palynology having very much crucial in forensic science.  It helped to compare the incident occurred vegetation to the surrounding vegetation; it helps solve the problems and gives the diversities of this area.  Our naked eyes do not observe some pollen; hence, criminals cannot remove this evidence from the dead body they studied under the Palyno-Forensic Botany.

                                                                                                            Multicellular Trichomes

             Some of the Forensic Botany disciplines because of the vast expansion in the study of plant science.  New approaches, protocols, and analytical techniques needed to be developed for the in-depth analysis of the topic.  Forensic Science is the application of scientific principles and procedures for justice.  Forensic Botany can play a valuable role in a criminal investigation.  Their various botanical fields are useful viz. ‘Plant taxonomy’, ‘Plant palynology,’ ‘Plant ecology’, Plant limnology’, recent advanced ‘Molecular plant biology’.  These branches are useful in solving crime.  For the study of using these, all branches developed human research technology.

               Various environmental factors can also be affected by pollens as temperature, soil.  Pollens of some plants cannot be survived for high temperatures; hence, they need the use of preservation methods of pollens because the pollen was one of the most crucial pieces of evidence to solve the criminal cases.  Therefore, pollen grains are used to preserve for further forensic study.

Unicellular pointed trichomes

Monday, October 19, 2020

Role of E-Learning in Life Sciences



  • Application of e-resources in the field of biology.
  • Role of Bioinformatics in Life Sciences.                    


           Now a day's e-learning plays a significant role in the field of life sciences.  Without using e-resources, we could not know mysterious things in the sciences, such as molecular biology development.  Over 20 years, it has done tremendous evolution. It solved many DNA, RNA, Protein, diseases caused by mutation, hereditary diseases, the enzyme's role in metabolism, immunological techniques, microscopy, metabolic pathways in organisms, proteomics, and genomics, gene bank, cDNA library, etc. Bioinformatics plays an essential role in the field of life sciences.  The term Bioinformatics took its origin from two words, 'Bio' meaning living & 'Informatics,' meaning Information Science. It is also called computational molecular biology.  Roughly; Bioinformatics describes any use of computers to handle biological information.  It supports medical news, data analysis gathered by the various genome projects, gene mapping, and population studies; it develops biological databases. 


          Biostatistics is the application of statistics in different fields of biology.  Without statistical data, we are unable to conclude most physical problems.  Hence statistics is considered to be an essential tool in biological investigations.  Therefore, Statistical Softwares are useful for the presentation, analysis, & interpretation of numerical data. They make the handling of biological data very easy. E.g., Open Stat, Weka, CSPro, etc.  Statistical Softwares are designed for rapid statistical analysis; a conclusion derived from numerous broad data is more reliable. Hence we are discussing the essentialness of these two critical fields.

            Yet, some years ago, not many people have heard of the term "e-learning." This is also called technology-supported learning. Biology students, researchers, & any related person of life science have to know basic biology.  E-learning is the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills & knowledge.  It includes a broad range of e-resources, e.g., internet, satellite, TV; despite this; there are many resources such as the importance of databases –it is an essential tool in assisting scientists in understanding several biological phenomena, there is specific software such as BLAST; FASTA; PHYLIP; PIR.  The most popular tool for similarity search is BLAST & FASTA.  It allows the sequence comparison or similarity search, whereas PHYLIP is used for phylogenetic analysis & PIR is a Protein Information Resource that describes a protein.    


I] Role of bioinformatics in life sciences- Bioinformatics is a rapidly developing branch of biology, using techniques, concepts from informatics, statistics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, etc.  It has many practical applications in the field of biology.  It is also called the science of developing computer databases to speed up & enhance biological research.  Computers & the World Wide Web (WWW) are dramatically changing the face of biological research.  In short, it is a combination of computer science, information technology & analysis of genetic information.



A) Significance of biological Databases-It is a collection of related data, where data means recorded facts. The database has several advantages over traditional paper-based methods of record keeping.


i.        Compactness

ii.       Speed of operation

iii.      Up-to-date information is available on-demand at any time

iv.      Accuracy & consistency of information


                  Bioinformatics is also called the information technology applied to molecular biology.  Rapid research in molecular biology has generated vast amounts of data that cannot be handled manually. e.g.-Data from genome mapping, sequencing, etc. Therefore, researchers attempted to use computers for data storage, maintenance & data processing.


A)  BLAST is a software tool used to determine whether a particular DNA or protein sequence matches any other DNA or protein sequence. It can be accessed through the internet at the National Centre for Biotechnology Information at website of the website containing a user interface allowing the user to input a sequence. The search algorithm then compares this sequence with all the sequences held in a database & assigns a similarity value.


B)   Need for Statistical Softwares – On the other hand, there is a strong need for mathematical methods & computational techniques for processing experimental data. Software packages useful for presentation, analysis & interpretation of numerical data are called statistical software. They decrease the error, which is occurred by handling a large amount of data.  It makes the handling of biological data very easy. Some e.g. of statistical software are Open Stat, Weak, WinSAAM, etc.  The result drawn from a large amount of data is more correct than the product obtained manually. It gives fast accessibility.

C) Types of Statistical Softwares- There are different software packages to do statistical works. But only one software is not sufficient.

·       General Packages- It is used for general purposes such as averages, central tendency, variation, correlation, regression, etc. E.g., Openstat, Vistat.

·       Curve Fitting Packages- helps to create suitable curves.

·       Survey & Testing Software Packages-designed to handle data during surveying, measurement.


D) Application of Statistical Softwares-

·       For biological sequence analysis

·       Distribution of plants & animals in different geographic areas.

·       Study of ecology at the community level.

·       Statistical works in population genetics.

Conclusions: -This paper aims to provide information on the essentials and significance of bioinformatics, one of the most vital fields of e-technology.  Bioinformatics tools & databases are powerful, valuable & essential in life science research. Without the help of the statistical software (e-resource), we couldn't take even a single research step.



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Botanical Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurial Botany is the study of how new businesses are created using plant resources and the actual process of starting a new busines...